Biological Control with Gratiana boliviana

Agent Identification

The beetle has four developmental stages (egg, larva, pupa, adult): Eggs are brown and enclosed in a membraneous envelope, larvae are spiny and are pale green,  pupae are flattened and immobile; and adults, are about ¼” long and nearly as wide, and are a deep green color.

Adults and larvae usually feed on the upper side TSA leaves while pupae and eggs can be found on the underside of leaves. The life cycle of the beetle starts when a female lays an egg.  Eggs hatch in 5-6 days, larval development takes about 16-18 days, and the pupal stage lasts 6-7 days. Therefore, from egg to adult the beetle takes about 29-31 days to complete development at 77oF.  Like all insects, development occurs faster when it’s warm, and slower when it’s cool.